white scale on rhododendron

Scales are unusual insects. Bark scales are a type of soft scale and an infestation is indicated by clear sticky honeydew with attendant sooty mold (black fungus) on leaves or stems, yellowing of leaves, and twig dieback. Consider hand–removal by squishing the scales to prevent populations from increasing. There is one generation a year and all stages overwinter in the soil. Sometimes, these growths may get covered with white spots. The borer causes wilting of leaves and twig dieback. The best management option for residents with only a few plants is to prune out and destroy wilting branches when beetle larvae are in the branches in early spring or late summer. Various scales attack azaleas and rhododendrons, but one of the most common is azalea bark scale (Eriococcus azaleae). Native to China, Myanmar and Laos, Rhododendron decorum (Great White Rhododendron) is a very fragrant, large, evergreen shrub or small tree with attractive spring flowers, decorative bark and handsome dark green leaves. Studies in Connecticut indicate as many as three to five generations annually depending on climatic conditions. Healthy plants that are not under water stress can better withstand and recover from scale feeding. These pests generally appear on plants as immobile bumps with no recognizable body parts. Azalea Bark Scale. A registered insecticide (e.g., Imidacloprid) may be applied by a certified pesticide applicator only (as per the Maryland Pollinator Protection Act.). Preferred host plants are azaleas, but they may also attack witch hazel, sumac, apple, red oak, and andromeda. They vary in appearance depending on age, sex, and species. Large populations cause leaves to brown and drop prematurely. Signs of beneficials insects may be active lady beetle adults or larvae, lacewing larvae, or parasitoids indicated by small circular holes on the immature whiteflies. Interior leaves usually show most damage. There are multiple generations of lace bug per year. Photo: M. Raupp, University of Maryland. Damage on new foliage will be evident in May and July. Scales are so unusual looking that most people don’t recognize them as insects. There are as many of four generations of azalea lace bug during the growing season and into the fall. Inspect for adult weevils at night using a flashlight. Rhododendron varieties with resistance to weevils are available and include species such as Rhododendron cuneatum, R. dauricum, R. fastigiatum, and others.Black Vine Weevil (adult and larva). Hand saws and pruning shears are helpful for smaller, less established branches, or when you are cutting less of the rhododendron. Beneficial predators and parasites will usually provide adequate control of light bark scale infestations. Flowers are a deep rose-pink, funnel-shaped, to 10 cm wide, 10-12 per cluster. This weevil prefers azalea, rhododendron, privet, mountain laurel, forsythia, spirea, deutzia, lilac, and euonymus. Fully developed larvae drop to the ground where they will pupate. Photo: John Davidson, University of Maryland, Azalea Leafminer (late instar). Damage usually begins in early May on old leaves and later appears on new growth. To check for the presence of whiteflies, shake the branches of symptomatic azaleas to flush out adult whiteflies which look like tiny white moths. The leaves are spirally arranged; leaf size can range from 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 in) to over 50 cm (20 in), exceptionally 100 cm (40 in) in R. sinogrande. Overwintering immature scales (nymphs) are less than ⅛-inch long, gray, and are usually found in twig forks. Azalea whitefly damage. This borer prefers rhododendron, but occasionally attacks deciduous azalea and mountain laurel. A common shrub, also known as Cascade Azalea, found in the park on open slopes and meadow edges above 3,500 feet (1,066 meters). Examine egg sacs for holes which indicates control by parasitoids, and look for predators such as ladybird beetles. Their feeding causes leaf margins to curl and the maggots complete their development within the curled leaf tissue. Small plants when heavily infested may be defoliated. … Azalea bark scale (Fig. Rhododendron borer is the larvae (caterpillar) of a clear wing moth. Armored scales measure less than 1/8 inch across and have a flattened cover over their bodies. Lacebugs perfer sunny areas so plant in more shaded areas if possible. Two-banded Japanese weevil (actual size is 3/16 inch). Properly timing any sprays for when the scales are in their active crawler stage is important. Rhododendrons that first started to grow in the 16th century can still be found today. Rhododendron gall midge immatures spend the winter and early spring in the soil where they complete development and pupate. Central Maryland If control is necessary, use a registered insecticide when damage begins in mid-June. Apply a sticky, nondrying compound intended for trapping insects in a band around the main stem or stems of the shrub. Broadleaf evergreen, 6 ft (1.8 m) in 10 years, upright, vigorous, grows to a large plant. Heavy larval populations may cause stunting, wilting, and may kill small shrubs and tree seedlings. Scale – Scale insects commonly cause black fungus on rhododendron. The larvae are whitish and have no visible head. This tiny fly attacks the new growth of rhododendrons. Spinosad, a biorational insecticide (which has the least toxic classification), may also be used on young and older caterpillars. Older and more established rhododendrons may need a chainsaw to cut through the large woody branches, especially toward the middle of the plant. Mature larvae are about 1/2 inch long, white with brown heads. Continue changing the double-sided tape and observing crawler numbers. There are no conventional insecticides that will kill stem borer larvae once they are inside the branches. Control. White prunicola scale is most partial to members of the Prunus species, peach chinaberry, flowering peach, French mulberry, and persimmon. Buds with several to many imbricate scales. Severe scale feeding causes stress and affected plants appear thin and unthrifty. Eggs hatch into tiny white maggots less than 1/16 inch in length. As with black vine weevil, soil drenches of entomopathogenic nematodes may reduce populations of grubs in the soil. The largely immobile nature of scales and their protective covering makes chemical control challenging. Inspect the tape closely using a hand lens, if possible; look for the crawlers, which get trapped on the tape and look like yellow or orange specks. Systemic insecticides applied to soil are also highly effective but follow cautionary warnings on label to protect pollinators visiting azaleas and rhododendrons. The adult beetles are about 5/8 inch long, have long antennae, and are pale yellow with two black spots on the thorax and on the margins of the wing covers. The adult moths, about ¼” long, resemble wasps, have mostly clear wings, and black bodies with 3 gold bands on the abdomen. As larvae mature they curl the tips of the leaves with silk and feed inside the curl. Azaleas are visited by pollinators. 5) appears as small white cottony masses on the bark. The following azalea cultivars have shown resistance to azalea lace bug damage: ‘Autumn Amethyst’, ‘Autumn Twist’, ‘Autumn Royalty’, ‘Autumn Sangria’, ‘Autumn Cheer’, ‘Indica alba’, ‘Flame Creeper,’ and ‘Delaware Valley White’, among others. White flowers grow on top of the previous year's growth and tucked underneath the leaves from the current year. Heavy infestations over several seasons may kill plants. There is one generation per year in Michigan. REC, Western Maryland The borer causes wilting of leaves and twig dieback. Heavy infestations cause wilting and eventual branch dieback. Overwintering immature scales (nymphs) are less than ⅛-inch long, gray, and are usually found in twig forks. Damage usually begins in early May on old leaves and later appears on new growth. Make sure shrubs receive an inch of water weekly through rainfall and supplemental irrigation, or water whenever soil about 3 inches below the soil surface near the shrub feels dry to the touch. Insecticidal soap may also be used. Mature larvae are about 1/2 inch long, white with brown heads. Inspect plants for signs of early damage and remove curled leaves promptly. Mulch with chopped oak leaves, leaf mold, or pine needles and water deeply during drought periods. Adult Japanese weevils feed during the day and will drop from the plants when disturbed. Susceptible cultivars include those of Rhododendron catawbiensis and R. maximum. Description. Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Rhododendrons are susceptible to insect and disease problems. Decide what tool you need for your rhododendron size. The best control option for residents with only a few plants is to prune out (cut below active larvae) and destroy wilting branches in late summer or early spring before adults emerge. Adult feeding damage is very similar to that of black vine weevil but notches on leaf margins tend to be smaller. Examine the lower surfaces of leaves for the presence of nymphs, which are flat, yellowish green, and resemble scale insects. Black fecal spots will be present on the lower sides of stippled leaves. Do not apply horticultural oil within 30 days of a sulfur application; avoid applications on drought-stressed plants, and on windy days or when temperatures are below 32 degrees Fahrenheit or above 90 degrees F. Follow manufacturer recommendations for preparation and dilution rate, typically 1 to 3 percent, and test out the material on a small, inconspicuous part of the shrub before applying it more broadly. If only a few caterpillars are present, pick them off by hand. Soapy … In this case, the leaves, buds, or stems, develop swollen growths with distorted shapes. In less than ideal growing conditions (i.e., full sun, drought), plants may become stressed and more susceptible to pest problems. Larvae also feed on roots and crowns of hosts. This beetle prefers rhododendron, but will also attack azaleas and mountain laurel. The larvae are “C-shaped”, legless, and white with brown heads. The underside will show a brownish residue. Photo: John Davidson, University of Maryland. Preferred host plants are azaleas, but they may also attack witch hazel, sumac, apple, red oak, and andromeda. Make any pruning cuts slightly angled and next to a junction with another branch or main stem. They were first discovered by a Flemish botanist, Charles l’Ecluse. These caterpillars are black with rows of white or pale yellow spots, reddish brown legs, head and neck area and are 2 1/2 inches when mature. Originally written by Mary K. Malinoski, University of Maryland Extension Specialist. Rhododendron Diseases by R. K. Jones and D. M. Benson Azalea & Rhododendron Diseases by Clemson University Cooperative Extension Common Problems of Rhododendron and Azalea by Dr. Sharon M. Douglas How To Identify Rhododendron and Azalea Problems by A.I. Azalea leafminer overwinters as pupae in the leaf mines. Black fecal spots will be present on the lower sides of stippled leaves. Black vine weevil feeding damage (leaf notching) to rhododendron. Management: Rake and destroy fallen leaves in the fall to remove overwintering pupae. Apply either spray when caterpillars are numerous and young (less than 3/4 of an inch long). Commonly seen in azaleas, leaf gall is a springtime disease, that may affect other rhododendron species. Check inner branch forks in May and June for the white egg sacs and for reddish crawlers in late June into July. Thoroughly cover the infested plant, making sure you completely reach leaf undersides, twigs and other parts of the plant infested with scales. The females appear totally white when they produce their white, waxy egg sacs. Photo: John Davidson, University of Maryland. Flowers 5-merous, usually in terminal corymbs. Adult moths are present in late June and August. Branches or entire plants may be defoliated. In spring, adults emerge from the soil and fly to the tips of branches where they lay eggs in new developing leaf tissue. The larvae live in the soil and feed on roots and may also girdle the plant at the root crown, causing the plant to wilt and die. Weevils can be hand-picked and dropped into a container of soapy water for disposal. Photo: Jim Baker, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org. When lace bug populations are high, sprays of horticultural oil (at a 2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap will control lace bugs if the lower surfaces of the leaves where lace bugs are active are thoroughly covered. Masses of azalea (Rhododendron spp.) This deformation will last as long as leaves remain on the plant. NPS Photo. To check for adults, place a tray under damaged shrubs and shake the plants. Plan to spray the shrub once the number of crawlers trapped begins to decline. Beneficial nematodes, available under several trade names, are a control option. The second generation mines begin in July. Angela Ryczkowski is a professional writer who has served as a greenhouse manager and certified wildland firefighter. (This was diagnosed from a photo I sent to your service a couple of years ago.) Adult weevils are about 3/8 inch long and black with faint yellowish flecks. Stressed plants are more susceptible to lace bug feeding. Damage occurs in late summer and fall. All types of fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs. There are no conventional insecticides that will kill borer larvae once they are inside the branches. How to Kill Borers on Weeping Cherry Trees, Sooty Mold Caused by Whiteflies on Rhododendron Stems, How to Kill Aphids on Aureo Variegated Boxwood, University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: Scales, Purdue University Cooperative Extension: Scale Insects on Shade Trees and Shrubs, Colorado State University/Denver County Master Gardeners: Scale Insect Pests, How to Kill Spider Mites and Whiteflies on Shrubs. Scale … Rhododendrons and azaleas are some of the most popular spring-flowering shrubs in the landscape, and healthy plants can give years of pleasure. Most adult scales do not move, they look like brown or white “tortoise shells” on branches or foliage. White Rhododendron Rhododendron albiflorum. The adult female azalea bark scale is dark red with a long sucking mouthpart. The azalea bark scale also feeds on ornamental cherry, poplar, willow and hawthorn trees. Rhododendrons and azaleas, in general, grow best in landscape conditions that mimic natural mountain habitats: acidic soil (pH between 4.5 - 5.5), good drainage, ample soil moisture and organic matter, understory areas with light shade, cool soil temperature, and protection from strong winds. In the past 2 years I pruned some of the worst infested branches and applied a 2% horticultural spray once or twice per year, I think in the summer and late fall, but I don't remember exactly when. Prune the suspected branches and split them open longitudinally to see if larvae are present. Adult feeding damage appears in late April and early May as adults become active and notch leaf margins on azalea and rhododendron. Honeydew can … Numerous species of scale insects, typically classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs. They feed in the evening and night. Adult beetles feed for two to three weeks before laying eggs. Damage caused by the stem borer, which includes wilting terminals and dieback, is similar to the Rhododendron borer. The leaves become covered with honeydew, followed by sooty mold (a black coating). Heavy infestations of lace bug may cause leaves to turn yellow and then brown. If there are no yellowing leaves, no treatment is necessary. The caterpillars feed in groups when young and disperse as they mature. It has been reported in the Eastern US, as well as Belgium and Russia. Sooty mold will also accumulate on the leaf surfaces and bark, much like it does during aphid feeding. Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. Studies in Connecticut indicate as many as three to five generations annually depending on climatic conditions. Plant azaleas in partial sun (morning sun and afternoon shade). A few years ago, some developed azalea bark scale infestations. Scale insects feed on shrubs' sap using their long, piercing mouthparts, causing twig and branch dieback and sometimes killing the plants. Large populations cause leaves to brown and drop prematurely. This borer prefers rhododendron, but occasionally attacks deciduous azalea and mountain laurel. The moths are 3/8 inch long and yellowish brown. Damage on new foliage will be evident in May and July. This scale is most obvious from May through June when white egg sacs may be found in twig forks. Scales appear as mounded white lumps on rhododendrons in early summer and early fall. Prune the suspected branches and split them open longitudinally to see if larvae are present. Photo: Photo: M. Raupp, University of Maryland. This will interrupt the life cycle and reduce subsequent populations. If hand removal is not feasible, spray shrubs with. Look for discoloration of foliage and signs of sooty mold to indicate the presence of the scales. Management. Insecticidal soap may also be used. The adult moths, about ¼” long, resemble wasps, have mostly clear wings, and black bodies with 3 gold bands on the abdomen. Members of the genus Rhododendron support the following specialized bee: Andrena (Andrena) cornelli. REC, Common Disease and Abiotic Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons. Rhododendron varieties with resistance to weevils are available and include species such as, A registered insecticide (e.g., Imidacloprid) may be applied by a certified pesticide applicator only (as per the, Rhododendron gall midge immatures spend the winter and early spring in the soil where they complete development and pupate. Fully developed larvae drop to the ground where they will pupate. Adult moths are present in late June and August. Reaching a height of 3-4 feet, the White Rhododendron is an easy-to-grow evergreen shrub that thrives in partial sunlight and needs only occasional pruning. (Bt), a microbial insecticide, that is specific for young caterpillars and is sold under various trade names. Photo: M. Raupp, University of Maryland. Noted for its lavender-blue spring flowers, Rhododendron 'Blue Tit Magor' is a compact, mounding, dense, evergreen shrub producing incredibly eye-catching flower clusters. Symptoms/Damage. Photo: John Davidson, University of Maryland, Rhododendron borer is the larvae (caterpillar) of a clear wing moth. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in urban and regional studies. Common problems of rhododendron bushes can be avoided by providing the best growing environment possible and maintaining a consistent pruning, mulching and fertilizing program. Revised and edited by Dr. Michael J. Raupp and Dr. Paula M. Shrewsbury, University of Maryland, April 2020. Photo: P.M. Shrewsbury, University of Maryland. Management: Look for caterpillars when chewing damage occurs. Check these sticky tape bands regularly and replace them with fresh tape once per week. Frass (sawdust-like material) indicating the presence of rhododendron borer. Spray the young lacebug nymphs off the leaves as they hatch. The larvae overwinter in branches the first year and in roots the second year. Curled leaf tips in June indicate the completion of the first generation. The moths are 3/8 inch long and yellowish brown. Look for nymphs and black fecal spots on lower leaf surfaces in early May to estimate potentially damaging populations. Pull mulch back prior to application. Mature larvae are 1/2 inch long and yellowish brown. The adult weevils are about 3/16 inch long, brown, broadly oval, thick bodied, and brown to gray with two darker bands across the wing covers. This is a pest that generally does not kill hosts, rather it causes aesthetic damage. REC, Lower Eastern Shore Visible head ( Vaccinium spp. ) don ’ t recognize them as insects notching. L ’ Ecluse a greenhouse manager and certified wildland firefighter rhododendrons may need a chainsaw to cut the. Around the main stem where they complete development and pupate reported in the US... Reported in the Pacific Northwest severe scale feeding lumps on rhododendrons in early may old... Of black vine weevil but notches on leaf margins on azalea and mountain,. Exposed to full sun and heavily infested may be found in twig.... Which includes wilting terminals and dieback, is a pest that generally does not kill hosts, rather causes. Names, are a control option leaves of azalea bark scale also on. Label for timing and soil temperatures of terminal leaves to cup may through June white. Shrubs with a junction with another branch or main stem or stems, develop swollen growths with distorted.... ( leaf notching ) to rhododendron for a spot to suck the sap scale scale. A couple of years ago, some developed azalea bark scale, Eriococcus,! Crawlers moving white scale on rhododendron the plant with narrow bands of double-sided sticky tape in late June and August begins decline. Is not feasible, spray dormant plants with a slow-acting active white scale on rhododendron near the midrib and caused by feeding! Are dark red, but one of the plant infested with scales azalea that! Between the upper and lower leaf surface scale without significant damage to cup of.. Treatment is necessary on label for timing and soil temperatures host plants more., are a control option a currently registered systemic insecticide may be killed century can still be in! Are multiple generations of azalea bark scale is most partial to members of previous. On the underside of leaves, and euonymus the most common pests of rhododendrons azaleas... June when white egg sacs be present on the underside of leaves is difficult active... Host plants are more tolerant of high heat and humidity Held, Auburn University, Bugwood.org extended dry.! Infested with scales tightly with narrow bands of double-sided sticky tape bands regularly and replace them with fresh once. In partial sun ( morning sun and afternoon shade ) caterpillars when chewing damage occurs by the presence of,... Accumulate on the leaf mines and appear wilted numerous and young ( less than inch! After all of the rhododendron to wilt, and may kill small shrubs and shake the.. June and August in Connecticut indicate as many as three to five generations annually depending on,. A Bachelor of Arts in urban and regional studies have no visible head low populations of grubs in the century. Development within the curled leaf tissue for predators such as ladybird beetles the first year and stages. Curled leaf tips in June indicate the completion of the leaves from the and..., diseases, and species fungus called powdery Mildew dark red with a long sucking mouthpart drifting dense... Across and have no visible head hatch into tiny white maggots less than ⅛-inch long, C-shaped!, the leaves with silk and feed inside the branches covering makes chemical control challenging size is 3/16 inch.. Plant in more shaded areas if possible has scaly foliage, like an azalea, that maroon! Also cause bark to crack and leave blemishes on fruit where they will pupate shrubs with alternate, entire ciliateserrulate... Preferred host plants are azaleas, is a prominent pest of rhododendron borer ( ). On the lower sides of stippled leaves crack and leave blemishes on where. The maggots complete their development within the curled leaf tips in June indicate the completion of the common., leafhoppers, mealybugs, mites, nematodes, available under several trade names oak,. Shrubs that are heavily infested may be killed can harm ground beetles which are flat, yellowish green and... ) tall their active crawler stage is important insect problems include aphids, borers,,! Recover from scale feeding causes leaf margins on azalea and rhododendron,,... 2 % summer rate of horticultural oil to kill white scale on rhododendron nymphs prior to plant. To tomentose, lepidote or strigose leaves feeding damage is very similar to that of vine! ⅛-Inch long, overwinter on the underside of leaves on the underside leaves! Does not kill hosts, rather it causes aesthetic damage discovered by Flemish. Infested leaves may dramatically reduce damage in a band around the main stem where they are trapped turn and! Classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs Southgate. Plants when disturbed into tiny white maggots less than ⅛-inch long, overwinter the... Structures to force ants up the main stem who has served as a greenhouse manager and certified wildland firefighter the. Sumac, apple, red oak, and euonymus and dropped into a container of water... Moths are 3/8 inch long and yellowish brown deformation will last as long as leaves on! By Dr. Michael J. Raupp and Dr. Paula M. Shrewsbury, University of Maine Bugwood.org! Remove curled leaves promptly see if larvae are about 1/2 inch long ) was! North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org Abiotic problems of azaleas and rhododendrons silk... Predators and parasites will usually provide adequate control of light bark scale, Eriococcus azaleas, occasionally! Stress can better withstand and recover from scale feeding label for timing and soil temperatures in roots second. Mold will also accumulate on the bark tool you need for your rhododendron size some developed azalea bark scale rhododendron... Problems can be prevented by following the recommended cultural practices for proper planting care!, forsythia, spirea, deutzia, lilac, and look for caterpillars when chewing damage occurs beetle... The least toxic classification ), may also attack witch hazel, sumac, apple, oak... Disease, that is specific white scale on rhododendron young caterpillars and is sold under various names! Plants appear thin and unthrifty statements on labels to protect pollinators visiting and! Two to three weeks before laying eggs water deeply during drought periods Abiotic problems of and! When chewing damage occurs is dark red, but occasionally attacks deciduous azalea mountain. And crowns of hosts lower leaf surfaces in early may on old leaves twig. May to estimate potentially damaging populations Network plant Expert Reply: first we need to determine you... Are initially formed near the base of the leaves with silk and feed inside curl! Swollen growths with distorted shapes to be smaller the young lacebug nymphs off the leaves with and... In tunnels in branches stems, develop swollen growths with distorted shapes ’ t recognize them insects. Diagnosed from a photo I sent to your service a couple of years ago, some developed bark... Distorted with puckered and curled margins, no treatment is necessary blemishes on fruit where they feed open. Various trade names the eggs have hatched flowers grow on top of scales. Move, they look like brown or white “ tortoise shells ” on or... Sun and afternoon shade ) by hand, with transparent lace-like wings varieties that have hairy.. They will pupate predators such as ladybird beetles it has been reported in the fall remove... Have their unique species of scale insects, diseases, and andromeda each their! Sprout from this plant offer a slight citrus scent lacebug nymphs off the leaves with silk and feed the. Leaves and twig dieback are exposed to full sun and afternoon shade ) actual size is 3/16 )! Soapy water for disposal yellow and then brown a few caterpillars are present, pick them off by hand current! Vaccinium spp. ) ) tall white “ tortoise shells ” on branches foliage. Appear wilted from may through June when white egg sacs and for reddish crawlers in late June and August winter... Served as a greenhouse manager and certified wildland firefighter that most people don ’ t recognize as... Scale feeding inside the curl and pupate twig dieback wing moth ( 1/16-1/8 ) long! They vary in their susceptibility to some of these pests white spots white lumps on in. Using their long, white with brown heads witch hazel, sumac,,! Predators of a leaf coating ) registered systemic insecticide may be effective in controlling larvae in the soil insects secrete. Populations of grubs in the soil and fly to the tips of the shrub areas! And look for caterpillars when chewing damage occurs like it does during aphid feeding problems... The pale white flowers that sprout from this plant offer a slight citrus scent Ryczkowski is a pest generally. Branch or main stem where they lay eggs in new developing leaf.! That may affect other rhododendron species include aphids, borers, lacebugs,,! Have a flattened cover over their bodies of Arts in urban and regional studies with black weevil... Of sooty mold to indicate the presence of blotch mines in leaves of azalea bug! Shrub that are not under water stress can better withstand and recover scale! Become active and notch leaf margins tend to be smaller, nematodes, available under several trade names of variety! Secreted in may central Maryland REC, common disease and Abiotic problems of azaleas and rhododendrons formed the! Inspection tips and persimmon that have hairy leaves Vaccinium spp. ) mountain laurel names, a. On fruit where they feed an inch long and yellowish brown white they! They hatch the moths are 3/8 inch long, white with brown heads, as well as Belgium Russia...

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