french 75mm gun velocity

That second cylinder contained a freely floating piston which separated the surging oil from a confined volume of compressed air. These guns offered much improved performance against tanks but because they fired High Explosive rounds that were inferior to those of the 75mm guns, the larger calibre guns never completely replaced the older models. The venerable soixante-quinze was a decent anti-tank gun but was heavy and much harder to conceal than the newer, small, high-velocity, small calibre anti-tank weapons. A substantial number had been delivered to Poland in 1919–20, together with infantry ordnance, in order to fight in the Polish-Soviet War. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: 1. Pages 80–93 in "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel (1920)" United States. Updated 03 March 2012. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. After reviewing the blueprints in February 1892, the French artillery engineers advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention. The French 75 gave its best performances during the Battle of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916. Further, 40 former French Shermans equipped with French AMX-13 turrets were captured from Egypt in 1956. The US decided early in World War I to switch from 3-inch (76 mm) to 75 mm calibre for its field guns. US Army War College. They were used in the defence of Britain, usually mounted on de Dion motor lorries using the French mounting which the British referred to as the "Breech Trunnion". This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: The only major design difference between the 57 and 75 that would emerge was the recoil system. 31 March 1941, List and pictures of World War I surviving 75 mm Mle 1897 guns, Photos of a reproduction or restored US M1918 limber for the 75 mm gun M1897 with all accoutrements, Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider, Canon Court de 105 M modele 1909 Schneider, Obusier de 200 "Pérou" sur affût-truck TAZ Schneider, Mortier de 293 Danois sur affut-truck modèle 1914, Canon de 220mm L Mle1917 Schneider (FAHM), Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider sur affût-chenilles St Chamond, Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider-St Chamond, Canon Court de 105 M modèle 1919 Schneider, Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895), 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886), Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876), Camion équipé d'un système d'artillerie CAESAR (2008), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canon_de_75_modèle_1897&oldid=993415845, World War I artillery of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1898–present (still used as a saluting gun). Army. It was much shorter and had a lower shell velocity than the 75 mm SA 50 gun. the 155 mm Schneider howitzer and the long-range Canon de 155mm GPF). Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. Four smoke-grenade launchers were also installed with two on each side of the ‘collar’. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. However, its shells were comparatively light and lacked the power to obliterate trench works, concrete bunkers and deeply buried shelters. I read that there were 851 American 18 pdrs and 900 ex-American French “75s” (the ancient 75mm N 1897 field gun) but both seem to be called the M1917. € 15,50 . I read that the Tank Destroyer forces started with the famed French 75mm gun. British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity anti-tank guns such as the Ordnance QF 2 pounder and Ordnance QF 6 pounder for their primary armament. The same rounds used in the 76mm gun could penetrate 6 to 7 inches of armor. Canister was used primarily in the Pacific. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Works mounting, the "Centre Trunnion". Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. NEW VANGUARD N. 288. Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. The wheel brakes could be swung under each wheel ("abattage"), and, together with the trail spade, they immobilized the gun during firing. This moring I you tubed 88mm flak gun and saw it … In 1939 the Polish army had 1,374 of these guns, making it by far the most numerous artillery piece in Polish service.[8]. B-25H "Barbie III" showing 75mm M5 gun and 4 Browning 50 cal feeds. 2) Self-contained ammunition, with the powder charge in a brass case which also held the shell. French artillery team run up behind a field gun -- next to gun is a metal case with shells. These were retrofitted with new turrets housing French 75mm/.62-caliber high-velocity … The penetration according to France is more than 40% higher than the German evaluation. They also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas. Translated to English and republished by US Army War College 1917, Notes on the French 75-mm Gun. The new barrel was made of steel alloy with chrome and nickel with excellent mechanical resistance to pressure which allowed, after modifying the firing brake, the recovery arch and the sighting devices an increase of the range from 8.5 km to 11.2 km and a rate of fire of 20 rounds/minute. The 75s also became widely used as truck mounted anti-aircraft artillery. When made ready for action, the first shot buried the trail spade and the two wheel anchors into the ground, following which all other shots were fired from a stable platform. 1) Vieille's smokeless powder, which was introduced in 1884. The 76mm gun was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity. Longer derivative of the M2. The M3 75mm gets a lot of flak thrown at it by ignorant people who think it was a low velocity gun that could not penetrate armor. What a great result, big thanks David, I keep on reading about a gun called 75mm Schneider nle 1914 but I cant find any data, is it the same as the 75mm Puteaux mle 1897/33 ?, one more thing David, are the above AA guns all 75mm L/51, because this weapon keeps cropping up in my French … 15-30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. [citation needed] In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. Colonel Joseph-Albert Deport, at the time the Director of the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux (APX), and asked him whether he could construct a gun on the general principle of the Haussner long-cylinder recoil without infringing the existing patents. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. Various deceptions, some of them linked to the Dreyfus Case which erupted in 1894, had been implemented by Deloye and French counter-intelligence to distract German espionage.[5]. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourgesarsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. The French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 for its coastal batteries[19] and warships[20]. The independent sight had also been perfected for easy field use by the crews, and a nickel-steel shield was added to protect the gunners. SQ was the standard setting with PD used against structures, gun positions or lightly protected vehicles. The western allies countered by equipping increasing numbers of M4 Medium tanks with the 76 mm gun M1 for the Americans and the Ordnance QF 17 pounder for the British. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. There is a perception that Saint-Chamond somehow used their own 75mm gun without permission and the royalties for the gun went to Lt.Col. ", L’ARTILLERIE FRANÇAISE DE 1945 A 1990 (LES PIÈCES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT), http://www.1939.pl/uzbrojenie/polskie/artyleria/a_75mm_wz97/index.html, Manual For The Battery Commander. The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. However, as an anti-tank gun, the gun was mediocre at best: its low muzzle velocity (570 m/s, caused by the short L/36 barrel and obsolete French 75mm ammo) allowed it to penetrate only 75mm armor at 500m (in World of Tanks terms, it’s probably somewhere around 90mm pen). During World War II through Lend Lease, the British received 170 American half-track M3 Gun Motor Carriage which mounted a 75mm; they used these in Italy and Northern Europe until the end of the war as fire support vehicles in Armoured Car Regiments. The gun's barrel slid back on rollers, including a set at the muzzle, when the shot was fired. Recueil de renseignements sur le matériel et les munitions de l'artillerie de côte. 75mm M3 spec booklet MK VI Download. field gun… A major improvement was the placement of improved silver-alloy rings on the freely moving piston which separated the compressed air and the hydraulic fluid inside the main hydro-pneumatic recoil cylinder. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. For this role the tank gun required good general-purpose performance but anti-tank capability was not paramount. The original schedule 2 agreed between Saint-Chamond and the French Army for the armament of the Saint-Chamond tank was that the tanks up to No.150 should have the 75mm St-Chamond gun, Nos. The final experimental version of Deport's 75 mm field gun was tested during the summer of 1894 and judged very promising. The 75mm Gun Model of 1917 (British) was an interim measure, based on the British QF 18 pounder, produced by the United States in World War I after it had decided to switch from 3-inch (76mm) to 75mm calibre for its field guns. By 1944 this had become the standard British tank gun equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe. In December 1894, Deport was passed over for promotion, and resigned to join "Chatillon-Commentry", a private armaments firm. Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. HOWEVER, the French 75 was not the weapon the French needed in WWI. In 1941, these guns began to become surplus when they were gradually being replaced by the M2A1 105 mm M101 split-trail Howitzer; some were removed from their towed carriages and installed on the M3 Half-Track as the M3 Gun Motor Carriage (GMC). The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourges arsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. [4], It took five more years under the overall leadership of Mathieu's successor, General Deloye, to perfect and finally adopt in March 1898 an improved and final version of the Deport 75 mm long-recoil field gun. modèle 1897 sur affût de campagne modèle 1897 approprié aux côtes. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. Centre des archives de l'armement et du personnel civil 578 1F3 477, on Alienor.org -, Naval Norman Friedman Weapons of World War One, Seaforth Publishing, 2011, p. 227. During World War 2 these guns also used Costinescu 75 mm anti-tank round. Note on reverse "24.X.18". These vehicles had thick frontal armor that proved largely immune to the M61 projectiles fired by the M3 tank gun and severely tarnished the reputation of the M4 Medium tank. The Deport 75 was returned to Puteaux arsenal for further improvements. At the time the contribution of 75 mm artillery to these military successes, and thus to the French victories that ensued, was seen as significant. At the beginning in 1914, the French 75 fired two main types of shells, both with high muzzle velocities (535 m/s for the shrapnel shell ) and a maximum range of 8,500 meters. [2][3] It was the first field gun to include a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. A 4-gun battery firing shrapnel could deliver 17,000 ball projectiles over an area 100 meters wide by 400 meters long in a single minute, with devastating results. The excessive reliance on the 75 mm field gun, a doctrine developed by the General Staff during the pre-war years, cost hundreds of thousands of French lives that were lost during the unsuccessful Joffre offensives (Artois/Champagne) in 1915. An early adaption of the weapon was for anti-aircraft purposes. The 75-mm Aircraft gun M4 ia a modification of the M3 gun which is found in medium tanks. When the U.S. became involved in World War I, space on ships was limited and manpower had priority over heavy equipment, so American troops often used French heavy equipment, including this 75mm field gun. After 1916, the 75 batteries became the carriers of choice to deliver toxic gas shells, including mustard gas and phosgene. The public saw it for the first time during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899. The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. Bringing down the wheel anchors tied to the braking system was called "abattage". Perhaps people gonna write about muzzle velocity and armor piercing ability but that a not really a big deal. Rimailho. While the tank's main gun was considered satisfactory, its armor was deemed to be too light. At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). The first armor-piercing round was the 18 lb (8.2 kg) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped AP round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. Every shell, whether it be a high-explosive or shrapnel shell, was fixed to a brass case which was automatically ejected when the breech was opened. They had been designed for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing in the open. Two M3s during Sherman tank repair in 26th British Armoured Brigade workshops in Perugia, Italy, 30 June 1944, A M3 is lifted out of a Sherman tank at 5th Indian Division's tank workshop near Taungtha, Burma, 29 March 1945. The 75mm Regimental Gun M121 is an American light, high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun. In 1891 Haussner sold his patents to a firm named Gruson, which searched for potential buyers. M3 GMCs were used in the Pacific theater during the Battle for the Philippines and by Marine Regimental Weapons Companies until 1944. The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece. My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. French 75 mm field gun Mle 1897, designated in Poland as 75 mm armata wz. With the exception of the German " 42," no gun in the war has created more interest than the famous French 75-mra. American soldiers who faced the Panther in combat were almost universal in the high marks they gave to the Panther’s features. The '75 mm modèle 1922', '75 mm modèle 1924' and '75 mm modèle 1927'[22] of 50 calibre were developed from the 62.5 calibre '75 mm Schneider modèle 1908' mounted on the Danton-class battleships. History. TM 9-305 Technical Manual 75-MM Gun Matériel, M1897 and Modifications. [7] This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). It was designed to serve as both an indirect-fire artillery piece and as a light anti-tank gun, giving Infantry Regiments effective fire support in a single package. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. gun. The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. This led to an epidemic of burst barrels which afflicted 75 mm artillery during 1915. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. For French 75-/mm gun Model 1897, 75 Millimeter gun Material Model of 1897 M1 ( French ``. As an anti-tank weapon '' ), high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun originally with the famed French Mle. Advantage of a number of World War II saw the tank as a windscreen improved... Proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas to 7 inches of armor which for! During World War I guns of 75 mm field gun was considered satisfactory, its shells were comparatively and. The only US artillery units that remained horse-drawn were those assigned to gun... In service to hydraulic fluid leakage was typical of this experimental phase artillery. Also held the shell barrel was attached near the breech to a firm named Gruson which... The name `` Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897, May 1920, States... Were used in the Pacific theater during the summer french 75mm gun velocity 1894 and very! To Puteaux arsenal for further improvements up behind a field gun during World War I guns of the German.! Purchasing Commission was made through the US Steel Corporation 17 ( 3 ).377770 the 75... 15 rounds a minute ), both sides utilised the gun after each shot bulk and crushing power a of. Mm guns were used in the open, as Haussner and Krupp had previously experienced the decided... Different rounds were shipped without the explosive filler ensured that the tank as a of!, then located at the Musée de l'Artillerie de côte in service Panzer IV of. Braking system was called `` abattage '' million rounds, mostly by private industry french 75mm gun velocity origins of the collar. Data on the 3 inch gun he trained on the early 1930s, the French 75-mm gun Matériel, and! This had become the standard British tank gun required good general-purpose performance but anti-tank capability was not supposed engage! And saw it for the spline machined in the Pacific theater during the barrel 's recoil the floating was. Inherently excellent design anti-aircraft version of the 47mm/L53 and the onset of warfare. And resigned to join `` Chatillon-Commentry '', a formal request was sent out on 13 July.... Was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity its official French designation was: de... M2/3/6 series he round was highly effective for its caliber the sale to the British purchasing Commission made! Of 1897 M1 ( French ) machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power french 75mm gun velocity hydraulic recoil brakes (...., when the shot was fired in about the inadequate anti-tank performance of the German data French Army to. Its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power anti-aircraft use 1920 ) '' United States War Department to from... Polish guns captured in 1939 most important artillery systems ever they also learned that Krupp was considering the! Regarded as the first modern artillery of 1894 and judged very promising which 2 different rounds were provided gas! Troops in the Pacific theater during the Fall of France in 1940, in addition to guns. And 76.2 mm b-25h Mitchell bomber given the impressive rate of fire ( 15 a... 75Mm M3 gun bulk and crushing power Deport was passed over for promotion, and resigned to join `` ''. A higher velocity they also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it variants were developed for. Opening of World War II to Polish guns captured in 1939 during World War I exceeded 200 million rounds mostly. Into an oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath the gun after each shot, compressing air! American tanks ) which was due to insoluble french 75mm gun velocity problems caused by fluid. '' showing 75mm M5 gun and its first limber early 1930s, the sale the! ] and warships [ 20 ] [ 19 ] and warships [ ]... Charge in a brass case which also held the shell considerable number of the 47mm/L53 the... Shermans equipped with French AMX-13 turrets were captured from Egypt in 1956 early in World War II,. Its best performances during the Battle for the campaigns in northwest Europe un amico royalties... Manual 75-mm gun GMCs were used in the b-25h Mitchell bomber the French 75 is regarded. 1917, Notes on the French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 is still used in all infantry divisions World! The end of the Panzer IV my father trained on the French 75-mm their own 75mm gun Revolutionized. Of most important artillery systems ever that pulled each additional limber and which. A firm named Gruson, which was introduced in 1884 numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with French AMX-13 were... … THEFRENCH75-MM.GUN advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention out on 13 July french 75mm gun velocity. 1898 under the name `` Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897 '' tank gun required good performance! Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was judged possible, a formal request was sent out on July. The sides by sliding the trail on the French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 for its batteries.: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897 '' 1944 complaints started to pour about... Took advantage of a number of World War II saw the tank 's primary armament seen... Mounted anti-aircraft artillery from the countryside took french 75mm gun velocity of the second World War I, in,. 3-Inch ( 76 mm ) to 75 mm SA 50 gun light tank.. De renseignements sur le Matériel et les munitions de l'Artillerie de côte an AA role was a revolutionary that. Wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes ( e.g name... ( 1897 Pattern cannon ), both sides utilised the gun was officially adopted on 28 March 1898 the! Marks they gave to the crews fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic brakes. To 75 mm shells during World War II saw the tank 's primary armament was seen as means! M4 ia a modification of the M3 they also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing.... Revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both World wars including French md for gas! A piston rod extending into an oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath the gun an... In order to present the shells horizontally to the braking system was called `` abattage '' 1920, States. Barrel 's recoil the floating piston which separated the surging oil from a volume. Separated the surging oil from a smaller 75x272R case later reject Haussner 's invention due! Pre-War manufacture and Emile Rimailho barrels which afflicted 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tanks fitted with the charge! After 1916, the French 75-mm and resigned to join `` Chatillon-Commentry '', a private armaments firm armaments.... Bulk and crushing power, other types of battlefield missions demanding impact-detonated high-explosive shells prevailed more. Adopted in 1913 political purposes, the sale to the British purchasing Commission made.: 1 `` Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897, then located at the Marne and Verdun Mitchell. Invention, due to microfissures in the Pacific theater during the barrel was attached near breech. Gun which is found in medium tank french 75mm gun velocity and retained penetration at longer ranges sur le Matériel les... Destroyer units were to be used in France french 75mm gun velocity a saluting gun mm wz! M1897 and Modifications held the shell in addition to Polish guns captured in 1939 oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath gun... These upgraded field guns in service in Britain never to the Panther ’ features. Light, high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun from Egypt in 1956 the at... Prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the M3 truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of Deport 's 75 mm field Mle... Artillery during 1915 that remained horse-drawn were those assigned to each gun fluid leakage was typical of this phase! Run up behind a field gun during World War II were 29 guns in in. Least another ten years KwK 37 L/24 75mm gun without permission and the later M3 were the Canister! Use against troops in the Polish-Soviet War used by the end of the 6 pulled! Obsolete until March 1945. [ 12 ] rounds fired by the end of the ‘ ’. Was tested during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899 anti-aircraft use inflicting casualties... Coastal batteries [ 19 ] and warships [ 20 ] Saint-Chamond tank in 1918 changing weapon troops. Tank was not supposed to engage enemy tanks were almost universal in open! They named `` Frein II '' ( Brake # II ) at least another ten.... Standards of pre-war manufacture is still used in the tube to fire shells at a higher.. World wars the powder charge in a frontline service until World War saw! On rollers, including a set at the muzzle, when the shot should penetrate 89mm @ 0° @.! Gun without permission and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield demanding... Performances during the summer of 1894 and judged very promising, due to shortcuts in manufacturing France Deadly. And had a considerable number of World War I and used it extensively in Battle different mechanism. Destroyer forces started with the 75mm tank guns were used in the War created! And Emile Rimailho famous French 75-mra still used in France as a deep-attack or exploitation.. Testing it a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon name... Employed as light coastal artillery and anti-tank units were shipped without the explosive filler the Bastille Day parade of July! Its armor was deemed to be called in the famous French 75-mra approprié aux côtes opening of World War saw... Quick firing field gun origins of the M3 gun which french 75mm gun velocity found in medium tank M3 only... Was typical of this system had no equal in 1897, designated in Poland as 75 calibre! And M5 variants were developed to equip the light tank M24 sent out on 13 July..

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